## Euclid

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## Elif Demir

Euclid, sometimes called Euclid of Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclid of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "founder of geometry" or the "father of geometry." His Elements is one of the most influential works in the history of mathematics, serving as the main textbook for teaching mathematics (especially geometry) from the time of its publication until the late 19th or early 20th century. In the Elements, Euclid

deduced the theorems of what is now called Euclidean geometry from a small set of axioms. Euclid also wrote works on perspective, conic sections, spherical geometry, number theory, and mathematical rigor. Mathematicians since Euclid have studied the properties of the golden ratio, including its appearance in the dimensions of a regular pentagon and in a golden rectangle, which may be cut into a square and a smaller rectangle with the same aspect ratio. The golden ratio has also been used to analyze the proportions of natural objects as well as man-made systems such as financial markets, in some cases based on dubious fits to data. The golden ratio appears in some patterns in nature, including the spiral arrangement of leaves and other plant parts.

The Elements is a mathematical treatise consisting of 13 books attributed to the ancient Greek mathematician Euclid. It is a collection of definitions, postulates, propositions (theorems and constructions), and mathematical proofs of the propositions. The books cover plane and solid Euclidean geometry, elementary number theory, and incommensurable lines. Elements is the oldest extant large-scale deductive treatment of mathematics. It has proven instrumental in the development of logic and modern science, and its logical rigor was not surpassed until the 19th century.

Euclid's Elements has been referred to as the most successful and influential textbook ever written. It was one of the very earliest mathematical works to be printed after the invention of the printing press and has been estimated to be second only to the Bible in the number of editions published since the first printing in 1482, the number reaching well over one thousand. For centuries, when the quadrivium was included in the curriculum of all university students, knowledge of at least part of Euclid's Elements was required of all students.

References

Artmann, Benno (1999). Euclid: The Creation of Mathematics. New York: Springer. ISBN 0-387-98423-2.

Ball, W.W. Rouse (1960) [1908]. A Short Account of the History of Mathematics (4th ed.). Dover Publications. pp. 50–62. ISBN 978-0-486-20630-1.

Boyer, Carl B. (1991). A History of Mathematics (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 978-0-471-54397-8.

Douglass, Charlene (2007). Page, John D. (ed.). "Euclid". Math Open Reference. With extensive bibliography.

Heath, Thomas (ed.) (1956) [1908]. The Thirteen Books of Euclid's Elements. 1. Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-60088-8.

Heath, Thomas L. (1908). "Euclid and the Traditions About Him". In Heath, Thomas L. (ed.). Euclid, Elements. 1. pp. 1–6. As reproduced in the Perseus Digital Library.

Heath, Thomas L. (1981). A History of Greek Mathematics, 2 Vols. New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-24073-8, 0-486-24074-6.

Figure References

Ocean, Young. “Math and Magic: Euclid Defines Space.” Medium, Medium, 13 Mar. 2019, sunfaceman.medium.com/math-and-magic-euclid-defines-space-ea987f61709c.

Waerden, Bartel Leendert van der and Taisbak, Christian Marinus. "Euclid". Encyclopedia Britannica, 5 Jan. 2021, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Euclid-Greek-mathematician. Accessed 18 April 2021.